The Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana), also known as gubinge or billygoat plum, is a small fruit

The Kakadu plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana), also known as gubinge or billygoat plum, is a small fruit found in the Eucalypt open woodlands across Northern Australia. It’s pale green with a stone in the center, over half an inch (1.5–2 cm) long, and weighs 0.1–0.2 ounces (2–5 grams). It’s fibrous and has a tart, bitter taste. In traditional medicine, Kakadu plums were used to treat colds, the flu, and headaches. They were also utilized as an antiseptic or soothing balm for the limbs. Kakadu plums are low in calories and rich in nutrients, providing a quality source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals. It’s especially high in vitamin C, a potent antioxidant that protects your body from damage caused by reactive molecules known as free radicals (2). Additionally, it’s an excellent source of copper, which is used to form red blood cells, bones, connective tissue, and important enzymes, as well as support proper immune system function and fetal development (3). Kakadu plums are also rich in iron, which is essential for oxygen transport throughout your body and red blood cell production (4). In addition, they’re a good source of dietary fiber, which protects against constipation, colon ...

Single-cell imaging and characterization of Escherichia coli persister cells to ofloxacin in exponential cultures

Bacterial persistence refers to the capacity of small subpopulations within clonal populations to tolerate antibiotics. Persisters are thought to originate from dormant cells in which antibiotic targets are less active and cannot be corrupted. Here, we report that in exponentially growing cultures, ofloxacin persisters originate from metabolically active cells: These cells are dividing before the addition of ofloxacin and do endure DNA damages during the treatment, similar to their nonpersister siblings. We observed that growth rate, DNA content, and SOS induction vary among persisters, as in the bulk of the population and therefore do not constitute predictive markers for persistence. Persister cells typically form long polynucleoid filaments and reach maximum SOS induction after removal of ofloxacin. Eventually, cell division resumes, giving rise to a new population. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of persister cells and therefore the need to analyze these low-frequency phenotypic variants on a case-by-case basis at the single-cell level. Failure to eradicate bacterial infections is typically attributed to the selection of antibiotic resistance mutations or the acquis...